The use of Animals in research is a privilege and they should be used only if the research’s best effort to fine an alternative have failed

The 3Rs


Refer to method which permit achieved you purpose of conducting experiments or other scientific procedures without the use of animals

Replacement alternative include:

Living system

  • The use of lower phylogenetic scale organisms such as bacteria, fungi and plants
  • The use of in vitro methods e.g. tissue and cell cultures techniques.
  • The use of invertebrate animals such as fruit fly
  • The use of vertebrates at early stage of development

Nonliving system or computer simulations

  • Physical or mechanical system and chemical techniques, e.g. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • The use of mathematical and computer models
  • The use of imaging techniques, e.g. Magnetic Resonance Imaging- MRI
  • The collation and use of information already gained


Refer to method which alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering and distress and which enhance animal well-being.

Refinement alternative include:

  • Establishment of more humane endpoints
  • Appropriate training and education of personnel
  • Improving health and care of animals
  • The use of non-invasive methods
  • Improving housing conditions, e.g. environmental enrichment, socialization of animals.
  • Pain- relieving drugs
  • Improving experimental procedures
  • Non-pharmacologic techniques
  • New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques


Refer to the number of animals in the control and test group of the study. It is any scientific and statistical strategy that result in fewer animals being used to obtain the same amount of information

Reduction alternative include:

Rational selection of group size, e.g. pilot studies and power analysis Careful experiment design, e.g. appropriate choice of control groups Careful planning and evaluation of experiments Right choice of animal models Maximizing use of animals Proper selection of experimental conditions and parameters measured The appropriate use of statistical software